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Full text of "Structural slate for school buildings / compiled by the Structural Service Bureau."

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DATE 



1 CHECnED BY 



STRUCTURAL SERVICE 
DATA and STANDARDS 



Copyright 1921 by STRUCTURAL SERVICE BUREAU. Philadelphia, Penna, 



STRUCTURAL SLATE 



FOR 



riLE 



SUB-DIVISION = 



SCHOOL BUILDINGS 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Preface 2 

Production of Slate 3 

Slate In the School 4 

Stair^ways 6-7 

Toilet Enclosures . . 8-9 

Shower Stalls 10-1 1 

Urinal Stalls 12-13 



Sinks and Sink Tops 14 

Furniture and Equipment 15 

Bases. Wainscots, Floors 16 

Architects Who Specify Slate 17 

Blackboards 18-19 

Schools in \vhich Slate has been Used 20 
Opinions of School Officials 20 



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^Satural slate k 

^ STRUCT URA L 

■ T.mr-UJfar-mirr-f.r^ 



The Structural Slate Company 

FEN ARGTL. PENNSYLVANIA 

Representing tHe majority of tHe Prodvicers in tHe 
PENNSYLVANIA SLATE DISTRICT 



campiie^ by the Str\ict\iral Servlce B\ireavi co-operating with 

tKe Producers and D. UNICIIERD ACtlER BOYD, Architectviral Adviser 

and Structural Standardist 



TKis Publication, bearing date of September 15tK, 1921, is of tWe Standard 8 ' 2 ^t 11 size recommended by the 
American Institute of Architects, and is intended for tKe Files of ArcKitects, Engineers and Constructors 



m. 



PREFACE 



THIS publication on the advantageous uses of slate in Schools and Educational Institutions is offered as one 
means of securing sound, lasting and economical results at a time when new levels of cost necessitate, more 
than ever before, fullest consideration of every factor entering into the design, arrangement and construction of 
buildings. 

Slate has been used over a long period of years for many of the purposes herein outlined and its constantly 
increasing utilization is evidence of the long service which it gives and speaks volumes for its economy; but it 
remained for the organization comprising the majority of producers in the famous Pennsylvania districts to under- 
take the work of standardization referred to by the U. S. Geological Survey on Page 5. 

The results are now offered in the hope that they may greatly aid Architects and School officials, in addition 
to which undoubted economies may also be effected through the use of such slate installations and equipment rather 
than through others requiring special details and manufacture which add to the total cost of the structure without 
increasing its efficiency. 

To determine the sizes, economical arrangements, details of application, desirable accommodations and other 
factors relating to standardization, and to correlate data concerning blackboards, sanitary installations and various 
features of School equipment and construction, the Structural Slate Company and the Natural Slate Blackboard 
Company, in co-operation with the Structural Service Bureau of Philadelphia, have made extensive investigations 
and have issued the results in a series of publications giving their practical application to slate, as follows: 

Chapter 1. — Origin and Geologic Data. Commercial Grading and Standard Finishes. 

Chapter 2.— Basic Specifications. Essential Information and Preparatory Work. 

Chapter 3. — Stairways. Specification, Details and Data concerning Stairways. 

Chapter 4. -Fittings. Illustrating and Describing those used with Structural Slate. 

Chapter 5. — Toilet Enclosures. Standardized Sizes and Parts. Drawings and Specifications. 

Chapter 6,— Urinal Stalls. Standardized Sizes and Parts, Drawings and Specifications, 

Chapter 7.— Shower Stalls. Standardized Sizes and Parts, Drawings and Specifications. 

Chapter 8.— Laundry Tubs, Sinks and Sink Tops. Standardized Sizes and Parts, Drawings and 
Specifications. 

Chapter 9.— Caps, Bases, Wainscots and Floors. Standardized Sizes and Parts, Drawings and Specifi- 
cations. 

Chapter 10.— Architectural Uses of Slate. Drawings, Details, and Data. 

Chapter 1 1.— Miscellaneous Uses of Slate. Drawings, Details and Data. 

Chapter 12.— Electrical Uses of Slate. Drawings and Specifications, Workmanship and Installation. 

Chapter 13.— Grave Covers and Vaults, Mausoleum Crypts. Drawings, Details and Specifications, 
and also: Natural Slate for Blackboards. Production, Standards, School Regulations, Specifications. 

In addition to the text, extracts from state and local regulations, and other data, each publication contains 
complete drawings and descriptions, with comparative prices wherever possible. Any or all of these publications 
may be secured upon request to either of the Companies at Pen Argyl, Penna. 



STRUCTURAL SLATE 



for 



SCHOOL BUILDINGS 



PRODUCTION OF SLATE 

T 71 7 HEN the remarkable qualities possessed by slate are considered, 

V V and more knowledge concerning its formation, methods of pro- 
duction and application becomes public, a wider appreciation and still more 
extended use of this material will undoubtedly result. The United States 
Geological Survey Bulletin No. 586 contains a complete description of the 
characteristics and quarrying of slate together with a glossary of terms. 
In this bulletin, T. Nelson Dale says: 

"While nearly all of the slates of the United States possess one or two 
excellent features, few possess many such features and none possess them 
all. Several are so conspicuous for their well-nigh perfect adaption to cer- 
tain uses that the demand for them is likely to increase with the growth of 
the country." 

The slate quarries range from just beneath the surface of the ground 
to a depth of approximately 500 feet, dependmg upon the thickness of the 
vein and depth at which the best material is obtainable. 

Slate in its natural bed in the quarry 
is cut out by means of channelling machines 
and then split into large size slabs, some of 
which weigh as much as four tons. They 
are hoisted to the surface and cut by slow- 
turning steel saws into pieces of workable 
size. 

After being sawed the slate is split with 
wedges into slabs of almost any desired uni- 
form thickness from 's" for blackboards to 
those for the heaviest structural 
requirements, after which the 
slabs are given the desired sur- 
face. The ability to so split 
slate into the thickness required 





{ State Qtiarrt/ o/ moderate depth in the 
Pennsyli a riia f)is trict 



Spin tiny StTuctutal Slate Slabs 



is due to the cleavage, technically known as "fissility." one of the 
many characteristics peculiar to this product of nature. 

The fine grained texture possessed by the far-famed Pennsylvania 
slate, from which all "Pyramid" Brand "mill stock" is produced, 
enables the surface of the material to be finished as desired, varying 
from the natural split face surface to the smooth, velvet -like surface 
with which all blackboards are finished. 



SLATE IN THE SCHOOL 



CHARACTERISTICS 



A TTENTION is called to Chapter 1 of the Series on Structural Slate. In this is described the essential char- 
MX. acteristics of slate, among them being its toughness and elasticity which is manifested by its resistance to 
strain, shocks, blows and the effects of settlement. Results of tests which show that slate is one of the least 
absorptive of any of nature's products are also given in Chapter 1, as are also the results of tests for strength, 
non-expansion and other requisites. Illustrations in Chapter 1 also show commercial surfaces and the processes 
of finishing are described. 

For structural slate installations, such as enclosures, stairs, stalls, etc., the surface mostly used is the **Standard 
Sand-Rubbed Finish." This forms a smooth, even surface which, after erection, is usually given a finish con- 
sisting of linseed oil and turpentine, to which lampblack is sometimes added. 

A still finer surface, when especially desired, may be secured by using the "Honed Finish." This consists of 
a polishing which can be given as an additional process following the fine sand rubbing. Structural slate is not 
furnished with this finish unless specifically called for. 

While structural slate is produced in but one quality, a selection is made by the Structural Slate Company, 
as a producing organization representing a large number of quarries, of that slate best suited for each type of instal- 
lation. There are two gradings, "clear," stock and "ribbon" stock. The latter contains ribbons or veins which 
run through the slate and which, while in no way affecting its strength or durability for structural purposes, make 
it unsuitable for certain uses, such as for blackboards, where the finished surface must be as free from markings 
as it is possible to secure, or for electric installations where the presence of metals in the ribbons makes it unde- 
sirable for this purpose. For these installations and elsewhere where ribbons may not be desired, the "clear" 
stock is used, but, as explained in Chapters 1 and 2, this represents but about 20% of the natural slate rock and is 
correspondingly difficult to obtain and hence more costly. 

The ribbon stock is not only more plentiful than the clear but is consequently much more economical and, 
being entirely suitable for structural purposes, its use is true conservation of material as well as of money. When 
oiled the ribbons are practically invisible and the finish shows the same as on clear stock. Therefore, unless 
particularly specified to the contrary, the slate for sanitary installations, stairs, bases, wainscots, etc., will be 
furnished of ribbon stock. 



USES OF SLATE 

While slate for blackboards is the use of this material which may first come into the minds of some, it is the 
purpose of this publication to acquaint Architects and others with the desirability of this product of nature for 
still wider use than heretofore in connection with Stairways, Toilet Enclosures, Urinal Stalls, Shower Stalls, Sinks, 
Sink Tops, Laundry Tubs, Wainscots, Floors and other installations for which slate is especially well adapted. 

Architects in all parts of the United States specify nothing else for the blackboards in their school buildings. 

Slate does not require replacement and is the least affected 
of all materials by the constant markings and erasures 
upon the surface. The velvety smooth, dark surface which 
makes chalk marks so legible and yet easily erased may be 
only secured upon natural slate. 



Architects and School Officials will now be in position to 
take fullest advantage of Structural Slate for Enclos- 
ures, Shower Stalls, Urinal Stalls, Sinks, Lavatories and 
other sanitary purposes. For, in addition to its recog- 
nized qualities with respect to those requirements, it will no 
longer be necessary to draw, specify or order slate fixtures as 
individually prepared units. Concerning slate installations, 
the U. S. Geological Survey in "Slate for 1920" says: 

4 






InstaUafwu oi natural slate blackboards in a modern 
school room at Rosemont . Pa. 



"The slate quarrymen realize more and more that much of the success of their business, especially in Structural Slate, lies in the 
standardization of the sizes of the products. The method of procedure usually followed has been to quarry and prepare structural slate 
in sizes specified by builders and architects. Therefore, the lack of uniformity in design or size prevents the production of material 
in advance. This condition has led to enforced unemployment in mills and quarries and in serious delays to builders, as the slate 
quarries cannot always produce stock at the time orders are received. To improve these conditions the Structural Slate Co.. of Pen 
Argyl, Pa , which represents various structural slate producers in the Pennsylvania district, has, through the Structural Service 
Bureau, proposed standard specifications for structural slate products, and has issued illustrated pamphlets showing sizes and shapes 
of standard parts for structural work. It is hoped that the acceptance of these specifications by associations of architects and builders 
will aid materially in stabilizing the slate industry." 

For treads of stairs, with or without risers of slate, the hard vein Pennsylvania slate is being increasingly used 
for its resistance to wear and because of its noiselessness. Finished with a sand-rubbed finish, the danger of slip- 
ping upon the stairs, even though wet, is kept to a minimum. 

The corridors, vestibules and halls in schools are subject to very considerable and constant use. As floors in 
these locations, slate offers a permanent, wear-resistive surface, easily cleaned. For use as a base against the 
side walls, to prevent the water used in washing the floors from staining the walls, slate again is most practical. 
Or, if desired, the side walls may be wainscoted with slate. Under the wood trims of doors, slate plinths are effective 
and as thresholds slate is being used in all types of public buildings. In the Department of the Interior Building 
in Washington there are 20 miles of slate base, 6,258 slate plinths and 2,477 slate thresholds. 

Each of the possible uses of slate in school buildings can be but suggested in this publication. Complete 
data, drawings and specifications are contained within each of the Chapters. While it is hoped that such infor- 
mation gives to the designer sufficient material to enable him to properly specify slate, if more detailed information 
is needed the Structural Slate Company 
places itself at the disposal of all those in- 
terested and will be glad to furnish any 
additional data, drawings or Chapters, as 
required. 

SPECIFICATIONS 

The proper specifying of structural 
slate is one of the contributory causes to 
its successful use in any building. In con- 
nection with the essential information as 
to the structure, characteristics, processes 
of manufacture and assembling of slate, 
as mentioned in this publication and set 
out at greater length in the individual 
Chapters, the Structural Slate Company 
and the Structural Service Bureau have 
prepared a specification which is published 

in Chapter 2. It contains not only General Conditions describing the materials, workmanship, installation and 
finish, but also offers suggestions for the preparatory work, by other contractors, necessary to receive the slate. 

For the convenience of those who desire to make use of these specifications without writing them out at length, 

a short form of General Conditions is given in Chapter 2 which, if 
used as therein suggested, will result in compliance with the longer 
form. This short form is reproduced herewith: 

GENERAL CONDITIONS. The General Condiiions, para- 
graphs I to 14 inclusive, as printed in Chapter \o. 2 on Structural 
Slate, copyrighted by and registered uith the Structural Service Bureau 
of Philadelphia, bearing date of April /.>. 1920, are hereby made to 
CO nst it ute the General Cond it io ns of th is s pec i fie at io n . 

After this the location, number and arrangement of installations 
should be mentioned. If standardized types are to be used they may 
A portion of the 96 slate Shower Stalls in be called for by type and number as described m the individual 
the Michigan State Xormal Coileye Chapters. 




Installation of Slate Shtfuer Stalls in Hethlehem Hi(/h School. Helhlehem. Pa. 




STAIRWAYS 

STAIR halls and stairways in school buildings must be convenient to exits and of a size and construction to 
properly safeguard the lives of the children within the building as well as to provide ample accommodation 
for interchange of classes and for other school purposes. 

The location and design are primarily peculiar to the individual building— the problem of construction, 
however, is somewhat similar in the same types of structures. The stairs must be rigid and strong. They should be 
of non-combustible construction wherever possible in order to minimize the danger of spreading fire and smoke. 

It is in connection with the materials and methods of construction that the data presented in Chapter 3 of 
the Series on Structural Slate will prove of value. Four suggested methods of construction are detailed, of which 
two are reproduced on this and the next page. These drawings show two types of stairs — one of steel construction 
with slate treads -the other of reinforced concrete with slate treads and slate risers. In both cases the strings 
are also of slate. The two types not here reproduced show steel construction with slate risers and treads and rein- 
forced concrete construction with slate treads and cement risers. 

Both for risers and treads the use of hard-veined, ribbon stock Pennsylvania Slate has proven itself as ful- 
filling all requirements of strength and resistance to wear. The non-absorptive qualities of slate are such that 
frequent washing of the stairs will not in any way injure the material. 

DATA CONCERNING STAIRS 

Certain data concerning the proportion of treads and risers in stairs in school buildings is herein presented. 
Additional data upon this subject will be found in Chapter 3. 

STRENGTH OF STAIRS 

Where Building Code Regulations do not specifically state the load to be provided for in calculating stairs, 
it is advisable to use 150 lbs. per sq. ft., as it has been developed that a densely packed crowd in a flat space weighs 
approximately that amount. While such a load could probably never be placed upon the stairs, there is a certain 
amount of vibration due to the movement of the load which makes this figure none too great for safety. 




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ELEVATION 



5LATE T[l[AD5-CA5T IdON [II5EI15-3TEEL 3UPP0(IT5 

TTPlCAL DETAIL OF A STAIdWAY SIMILAR. TO > LL U 5 T R. A T I N 



RISE AND TREAD 

The arrangement of a stairway for ease in walking up and down depends upon the proportion of rise to the 
tread. Of the several rules applicable to proportioning stairs the best one is as follows: 

The sum of twice the rise, plus the tread should total from 24" to 26" thus a stairs with a rise of 7 ^ •>" and a tread 
of 10" would total 25" according to this rule. 

The relation of tread to riser is a question of judgment; outside steps to a public building or to an interior 
monumental stairway should have wider tread and less rise than ordinarily would be the case. 

In "Stairs and Stairways" one of the "safe practices" issued by the National Council, there appears the follow- 
ing table of standard dimensions of treads and risers: 



Angle of Stairway 

WITH HORIZONTAL 


28-27 


23-25 


30-25 


31-2 e 


32-28 33-32[34-37' 


^SM 


36-5Z 


38-02 


33° 12 


4Cf25 


41-3842-53 


44°09 45-26 


4M4' 


48°04 


43°24' 


50°0d 


RISER -mCHE5 


6i 


Gi 


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6i 


7 


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7i 


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7i 


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11 


8 


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81 


&{ 


61 


81 


811 


THEAD -INCHES 


IZ 


111 


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11 


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71 



CAPACITIES AND WIDTHS 

"Specifications for Construction of a Standard Building" is the title of a publication issued by the Com- 
mittee on Building Construction of the National Fire Protection Association, which contains data relating to these 
subjects. 

Note. — Chapter 3 contains also a table of risers carefully worked out for the convenience of Architects and 
for the drafting room showing the heights of risers for varying distances from floor to floor. There is also a list 
of the actual measurements of stairs which have been erected in existing buildings and which should be of value 
in determining the rise and tread suitable to almost any type of structure or any location. 



REIHFORCID COMCRETE 







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TREADS AND R.13ER5 



5LATE- 
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E LE VAT I ON 



5LATt JkLkDS AND dl 5 ER.5 - R.U N FO kC ED CONC[lETE 

TYPICAL DETAIL OF A 5TAIR.WAY SIMILAR. TO ILLUSTRATION 



TOILET ENCLOSURES 

IN a study of the situation pertaining to the size, arrangement and design of toilet enclosures so as to be of 
the greatest assistance to architects and constructionists as well as to themselves in the production of slate 
for this purpose, the adoption and promulgation of certain standardized sizes and types by The Structural Slate 
Company has resulted. This has made it possible to so produce the slate partitions, backs, stiles, etc., that 
the designer has yet almost unlimited choice in the layout of the enclosures within a building. 

Three types of enclosures have been adopted as standard. Type A is an all-slate type, consisting of slate 
backs, partitions, stiles and ends with slate rails across top. Type B consists of slate backs, end stiles and ends 
to the floor and with intermediate partitions and stiles supported 11" above floor on N. P. Brass Standards. 
Across the top are N. P. Brass rails on top standards of the same material. Type C Enclosures consist of slate 
backs and ends to floor and no stiles with partitions 11" above floor on bottom standards. Top standards and 
rails are similar to Type B. 

Types B and C are also furnished in alternate type with the ends 11" above floor the same as intermediate 
partitions. 

Each of these types is furnished in single units and also back to back. They are also furnished with 
either vent spaces or work spaces back of the enclosures, when so designated. 

There are two widths of enclosures and three lengths, available in the different types as shown by the 
accompanying table. Each of these types, including alternates, with full description of all that is furnished 
with each type when specified in accordance with Chapter 5, is exemplified by the reproduction of the two 
pages showing Type BV, upon Page 9. This shows an enclosure of Type B with vent space back of same. 



Size 


Width 


Length 


Type 


1 


r—io" 


4' -6' 


AB 


2 


2'— 10" 


4' -0" 


ABC 


3 


2— 8" 


4' 6" 


AB 


4 


2' - 8" 


4-0" 


ABC 


5 


2—10" 


3' 6" 


C 


6 


2' - 8" 


3' 6" 


C 



The thickness, jointing and construction of the "Pyramid" Type Enclosures are fully detailed, similar to the 
drawing illustrated on this page. These details, in connection with the perspectives, plans and descriptions 
indicate exactly what will be furnished by the Structural Slate Company to the contractor and hov/, without 
the necessity of specialized individual detail drawings, the standardized types should be erected. 

Page 11, Urinal Stalls, contains also data of value in determining the number of W. C. Enclosures within 
a school building. 




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SHOWER STALLS 

AN essential to the correct installation of shower stalls is the use of a material which, in itself, will not 
^ absorb water and the construction and installation of which will be such as to prevent leakage and not to 
require constant upkeep or replacement. 

The details in Chapter 7 have been carefully worked out for the partitions, backs, floors and all other struc- 
tural parts of slate showers. As evidence of the satisfactory use of this material in School Buildings, two large 
installations of shower stalls with dressing rooms, all of slate, are shown on page 5 of this publication. They are 
parts of the equipments in the new High School building at Bethlehem, Pa., and in the Girls' Gymnasium in the 
Michigan State Normal College. 

Comprehensive data and illustrations of various types and sizes of slate showers which have been adopted 
by the Structural Slate Company as standards and are recommended for consideration preparatory to laying 
out buildings are contained in Chapter 7, entitled "Shower Stalls." It will be found that three sizes of stall are 
suggested together with five types all of which are available in the sizes and arrangements shown by the accom- 
panying table: 



e Xo. 


Width 


Depth 


Type 


1 


3' 0" 


3' 0" 


A 


2 


3' 0" 


3' 6" 


ABCDE 


3 


3' 6" 


3' 6" 


BCDE 



Type A consists of slate slabs forming the backs, ends and partitions with slate floors flush with floor of room 
for use where requirements as to splashing of water on floors are not exacting. 

Type B is similar to Type A except that a curb is placed on the front of the shower at the bottom in order 
to prevent water running out over the floor. 

Type C is a further development of Type B having slate stiles at either side of the front. 



Types D and E are combination dressing room and shower types. The former has a separate dressing room 
for each shower and the latter a shower between each two 
dressing rooms. As an indication of how completely each 
type is detailed, the drawings and descriptions of Type D 
are reproduced upon the opposite page. ©^Mr^t- i^t-^ c^44 



'cross 51CTI0N Tvpt C6CC 



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3fCTlON.....o.fND 




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All types have N. P. brass fittings to securely fasten 
the slate together and have N. P. brass bars at the top 
secured by N. P. brass top standards. 

All types of showers are so arranged that they can be 
used with or without metal pans, according to location in 
the building. If lead or other metal work is desired or 
necessary, the additional pieces of slate to accommodate 
the pans can be called for without change in arrange- 
ment. Details such as those illustrated on this page are shown in Chapter 7, indicating how the metal pans 
and slate work may be installed in connection with any type of shower adopted. 



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URINAL STALLS 

npHE exacting requirements for urinal stalls are fully met by the use of Structural Slate. The characteristics 
-*- of slate both as to rigidity of construction and non-absorption of liquids are such that it can be easily 
produced to suit any special size or type of urinal in addition to the standardized types and sizes which are 
promulgated by the Structural Slate Company. These were adopted as a result of a study of sizes and arrange- 
ments of fixtures already installed in School Buildings and in other types of structures. 

Here again if the suggested types and sizes, as shown in Chapter 6, are used there will be a resultant economy 
in installation and future upkeep. The sizes and types are such that they fulfill almost any requirement in 
School Buildings. 

Of the four types, A has slate backs, ends and partitions continuous to top of floor slabs, the inner portion 
of the partitions being cut out to a height of 18". This type is suitable for use with separate urinal bowl, there 
being no gutter drain in the floor. 



Type B has slate backs, ends and partitions and slate gutter; the backs are sloping so that they may be 
thoroughly covered with water from the flush pipes or fan spreaders, either of which may be used. Drawings 

and descriptions illustrating Type BV are reproduced upon the opposite 
page. The sloping back is standard with all types. 



Type C is similar to Type B, except that there are no partitions form- 
ing separate stalls. It may be of any length without divisions. 

Type D is an all slate type, with overhead flush trough of slate and 
slate ends, back, partitions, gutter and floor. This is made up only with a 
vent space in the rear, while Types A, B and C can be obtained either with 
or without the vent space. 




LoNCiTuoiHW. 3tc""0N Caoss Section 

•C wala LOHCtl •»-»•• T-ur >'»m TVK 6 4HI MTfTt i ro« TmiB « 



The height adopted for all urinals is 4' 6" from floor to top, as it was 
found that this was the average of the many installations examined. A width of 23" in the clear for the single 
stalls was adopted although narrower or wider stalls may be used in connection with any of the types shown by 
calling for the difference on the drawings or in the specifications. 

For the information of those specifying "Pyramid" type slate urinals, details are shown in Chapter 6 similar 
to the ones on this page, illustrating the sizes and arrangements of slabs and the method of jointing. 

Within this same Chapter is also data suggesting the urinal accommodations to be 
provided in various types of buildings where they are not controlled by local, state or 
other regulations. As an instance, the city of Indianapolis in its "Standardized Require- 
ments for the Construction of Elementary School Buildings," provides: 

"The main toilet rooms shall be well lighted and ventilated and of ample size to 
accommodate without crowding the installation of plumbing fixtures as prescribed by 
the State Board of Health, viz: One water closet for each fifteen girls or fractional 
part thereof; one water closet for each twenty-five boys or fractional part thereof; and 
one urinal for each fifteen boys or fractional part thereof. In estimating the number of 
water closets required, the maximum number of pupils which the building is to accom- 
modate shall be divided 40 per cent boys and 60 per cent girls." 



'<7}:j:^'^MMm 



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13 



SINKS, TUBS AND LAVATORY TOPS 



nnHERE should be provided in school buildings more than the average number of basins or sinks because of 
their intensive use by the children during certain periods of the day. Being so resistive to constant use 
as well as economical in installation, slate is peculiarly well adapted for this purpose. In addition the sinks 
and smk tops in laboratories and manual training rooms could also well be of slate, non-staining and odorless, 
an ideal material for these locations. 



Various types and sizes of sinks with or with- 
out drain boards, may be secured from the Structural 
Slate Company. There have been adopted certain 
standardized sizes which are kept constantly in stock 
for prompt shipment. All of this data is more fully 
set forth in Chapter 8. One of the types of slate sinks 
with backs for use in school rooms where research 
work is conducted in physics, geology, chemistry, 
etc., or in manual training rooms is the Type A-2 
Alternate, illustrated on this page. This type sink is 
available in eleven different sizes, either with or with- 
out the backs. 



Note- The supports 
shown here are for 
illustration only. 
The kind to be U5€d 
should be spec I [ltd. 




Type A 2 Alternate 

Showing Alternate Type With I2" Back. 



In this same Chapter 8 there are shown several 
types of Laundry Tubs, with standardized sizes and details. Any of these would make suitable adjuncts to 
modern domestic science rooms. 

The wash rooms, in which there occurs at certain periods of the day a sudden and considerable use of the 
basins, require a material for the tops of the basins which is resistive to the constant wear and tear and which 
does not accumulate dirt or stains and is easily cleaned. Such a top of slate, similar to the illustration of the instal- 
lation shown on this page, can be secured for any size or number of basins. 

The number of basins required in proportion to the number of pupils in the school must necessarily be 
left to the judgment of the designer unless state or local regulations govern. There is no fixed rule to apply to 
this, as the number of class rooms with the number of pupils in each room and the arrangements provided for 
sanitary conveniences will all aid in determining the requirements. 



Itiss 



*retheu 




14 



FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT 

IN the equipment of laboratories within School Buildings one of the determining features as to the material of 
which the furniture is to be constructed or protected is that it should provide the most effective resistance to 
the very considerable "wear and tear'' usual during the school term when there is constant use by many different 
persons. 

It has been found that Slate -with its qualities of resistance to wear as well as to stains and moisture is par- 
ticularly well adapted for use as table tops in science rooms or 
physical laboratories. Particularly is this true when it is necessary 
to have a sink in the table such as illustrated by the type of desk 
shown on this page. In this case the table top and sink both are 
constructed of slate. 



Cabinets of slate with slate doors such as are illustrated on 
this page provide excellent accommodations for the proper care of 
the specimens and instruments used in school laboratories. The 
slate does not warp or twist from dampness. It is non-staining and 
can be thoroughly washed and cleaned at intervals to form a clean, 
sanitary surface for the receipt of the material to be placed therein. 
These cabinets can be constructed of any size or arrangement. 




Desk with Slate Top and Sink 
They can also be furnished with glass over the tops to form an aquarium 



In Domestic Science Departments there are now being installed Laundry Tubs as a portion of the equip- 
ment required to carry out the curriculum. Tubs of natural slate have proven to be strong and serviceable and 
economical in upkeep. Standarized sizes and types are produced by the Structural Slate Company and are fully 
described and illustrated in Chapter 8. 

It is suggested that Architects and School Officials get in touch with the Structural Slate Company, when 
they are about to consider the purchase of school equipment. The corps of experts in the service of the company, 
will be glad to make suggestions which may be of assistance in the designing of any portion of the equipment 
where the use of slate would be not only an advantage, but perhaps an economy in first cost and in future upkeep. 



■ 





Cabinet of Slate, with Slate Doors and Shelves 
IS 



BASES, WAINSCOTS, AND FLOORS 




Detail of Slate Plinth 



TN the selection of materials for the interior finish of School Buildings, 
-^ there are certain portions, particularly the floors and walls of entrances, 

lobbies and corridors where the choice is 

limited to a material which will resist 
the hard usage usual to these locations. 
The floor should be of a material which 
can be washed and kept clean and san- 
itary. Floors of slate alone or of slate 
with tile inserts such as illustrated on 
this page or in combination with other 
materials form an effective and practical 
floor which is resistive to wear, is vermin 
proof and sanitary. 

Detail of Slate Base 




For the side walls of corridors, lob- 
bies or vestibules the use of slate wainscoting is a protection to the walls 
in that it affords a strong, rigid, moisture- and stain-proof surface to take care of the natural rubbing against 
the walls by children of all ages and heights. 

Details, descriptions and data concerning the use of slate in floors and wainscots is given in Chapter 9. 
This also describes and illustrates various types of slate bases which may be used at the bottom of side walls 
in connection with floors or walls of any material. In this position slate is particularly of value in that the 
floors may be washed or cleaned without damage to the side walls above the slate base. 

Where slate or other similar material is used for the bases of side walls, the use of slate plinths under the 
trims of openings adds protection to the woodwork of the opening. The use of slate thresholds in openings, 
particularly where a floor of two difi'erent kinds occur on either side, forms an excellent means of joining the two. 
All of these uses of slate as well as numerous details of bases, caps, coves, etc., are shown in the Chapter above 
referred to. 




Description 

F I oor consists of 
cblong slate slabs 
laid in Simple pdt- 
tern rv 1 1 h 3 > 3 V 1 1 - 
recas floor tjle. 
Voider o f slate 3 
n fde. 5iie of slate 
cut Ic fit. 




Detail of Slate Flmn 



Slate Hainscot and floor 



ARCHITECTS WHO SPECIFY SLATE 



I 



T is a tribute to the qualities and economies of Slate that its use everywhere by Architects and Con- 
structors is constantly increasing. 




htieti 



The illustrations upon this page show two 
large school buildings designed by two school 
specialists in which natural slate blackboards are 
installed throughout In addition there are the 
scliOols reproduced on page 20 by other well 
known architects. 

In many large cities where the Boar*l 
Educatitjn has its own Architectural and Engi 
neering Departments, blackboard sUitc is in 
dependent ly purchased while specifications for 
new or altered buildings call for slate to be used in the various other locationi. 

In additKjn to some of the architects who arc officially connected with Boards of Education, and ufc 
nothing but natural slate for blackboards, there is a still larger litl ol tho«r who have uted Slate in School 
buildings erected urulrr their suprr vision, either as blackboards or as ttairi. wamscott. baiet. etc or for sanitary 
pur^x)ses. Among both of these, m addition to those whose work is illustrated, are; 

C H J Snytlrr. Arrhitrtt and Superintendent of Buildmii for the Bo«rii of Education. Ncw Ycrk CHy. 

J.hn I) CunncU. Suprnntrndrnt of Building for the Bo«d of Education. Philadelphia, Fa. 

Wtii K M.irCoriuu Ic. Architect for the Board of Eilucation. Ctrvetand. Ohio. 

h A N.ir.unorr. Ar. hitect for Seattle Public S hcxil*. Seattle. Waah 

K M Milhuiuj. C.»rnmui« loner of School Buildings. St Lou:a. Mo. 

A F Huniiimler. former Architect for the Board of Education. Chteafo. Ill 

Eilwin S Gordon. Architect for the Board of Education. Rochemter. New York 

SniUh. Hiiuhman and OrylU. Detroit. Mich 



Kilham. Hopkins and Greeley. Boaton. Ma»« 

Perkins. Fellows Ok Hamilton, Chicafo. Ill 

Paul A Davis. Philadelphia. Pa. 

Aahby. Ashhy flft Schultie. Chicun.. IH 

Edward Stoti. Pittsburgh. Pa 

Boyd. Abel fli Gugert. Philadclphi.i k . 

C E Schermerhorn fli W K Philipn, Philadephia Fa 




,/. Hi^jh >. A.hW. BrookliM y*iss f'tink triifHt 



The« C K .'.. Cal 

Otlbcrt R h wn. N D 

C M. JohMton. tl Pmul. Minn 

Trwin T Catharine, p^ • • ■ ' p 
H Edw-r.l W«Ikrr W v'. 

Wm G«ir<U>n St J<Mrph. Mo 
Gtrn J Prarcy. Mankato. Kan 
Walter F FontaiM. Woonaockr • 
K' • ' I ' -./ I Rr ' • m, Prnn.* 

M . . • h ' '. . V.;fk. N Y 

Among the many school buildings in which struc- 
.ral slate in its various forms has been installed arc: 

Bethlehem Hich School. Bethlehem. Pa 
P ffrr Srhnol. Syraruae. Net» York 
Srrrlmc Hifh School. Stertinc. HI 
La.l.>«.« S hool. L^dota. Ind 
Bruukline Grammnr School. Broriklmr Mas* 
S*c City School, lac Oty. lovm 
I .r. . r Sc-nior High IclMol. Roflnoke Rapi. 
•^ ' >M hool. CarlisI*. Pa. 
r >n Ht«h School. Oroton. If Y 
M^iaaachuacfta CoUcir o# PlMrmacy. Boaton. Maat 
r Grade High School. EXktttdtJt, H D 
H«h School. Radnor. Pa 



17 



SLATE BLACKBOARDS 

npHE constantly increasing use of slate blackboards in many schools is evidence of the thought and study given 
-L by architects to the installation of a material which best answers the purpose. The smooth, finely-finished 
surface which is given to the Pyramid Brand Blackboards of Natural Slate and the care taken in the inspection 
and workmanship before shipment is such that, when properly installed, perfect blackboards should result. 
Further data as to the production, finishing and installation of natural slate for blackboards is contained in a 
booklet issued by the Natural Slate Blackboard Company, which contains, in addition, detailed drawings show- 
ing installations based upon the experience of several architects who co-operated in the preparation of the 
drawings which are reproduced upon the opposite page. 

SIZES AND THICKNESSES 

\ote Wherever the word ''width" is used it is to be taken as synonymous with "height." 

Natural slate blackboards are produced and carried in stock in three standard widths, 3' 0", 3' 6" and 4' 0". 
These three widths comply with nearly all usual requirements in connection with blackboards for class rooms. The 
slate can, however, be cut to any desired width to suit special requirements or dimensions. 

In lengths, the slate is cut to fit the dimensions of the spaces. The general practice followed, unless specific 
instructions are given, is to provide single slabs for spaces 4' 6" long; two slabs for spaces 4' 6" to 9' 0"; three slabs 
for spaces 9' 0" to 13' 6", etc. No slab should be less in length than its width, but in filling any desired space 
the slabs may vary in length by not to exceed one foot. 

The thickness of the finished blackboard should not be more than ■\" nor less than ^4". This allows the 
slabs to be properly set with a true, uniform, flush surface, including joints. 




ytilton High School. Milttm. Mass 



LOCATIONS AND AREAS 

For the convenience of designers of school 
buildings the booklet above referred to presents 
data taken from many sources giving the sizes 
and locations of blackboards as well as the 
heights of slabs and chalk troughs. 

Standard heights of chalk rails and heights 
of blackboards as used in New York City and 
Boston are shown by the table printed below. In 
addition there is printed in the booklet on Natural 
Slate for Blackboards additional data which it 
is hoped will prove of value in connection with 
the use of slate blackboards. The illustration 
upon this page is of a blackboard of natural slate 
within a school building designed by Kilham, 
Hopkins and Greeley, Architects, Boston, Mass. 



GRADE 

Kindergarten 

1st. 2d. 3d 

4th 

5th. 6th 

7th 

8th 

High Schools 



HEIGHT OF 


HEIGHT OF 


TOP OF BOARD 


CHALK 


TROUGH 


BLACKBOARD 


ABOVE 


FLOOR 


New York 


Boston 


New York 


Boston 


New York 


Boston 


2 


2 2' 


4' 0" 


4' 0" 


6' 0" 


6' 2 " 


2 0" 


2 2' 


4' 0" 


4' 0" 


6' 0" 


6' 2" 


2' 6" 


2 4 ' 2' 6 


3 6 


4' 0" 


6' 0" 


6' 4" 6' 6 


2 6" 


2 8 ' 


3' 6" 


4' 0" 


6' 0" 


6' 8" 


3' 0" 


2 8 


3' 6" 


4' 0" 


6' 0" 


6' 8" 


3 ' 


2 8 


3' 6' 


4' 0" 


6' 6" 


6' 8" 


3' 0" 


2 8 


3 6" 


4' 0" 


6 6" 


6' 8" 



For Colleges it is usual to set the board 30 above the floor and use a 4' 0' width. 

18 



SOME SCHOOLS IN WHICH SLATE HAS BEEN USED 



M 




Ctijde Piibiic School, Clyde. Kan. 

Lorentz Schmidt, Archilect, 

Wichita, Kan. 



WILL CONTINUE TO SPECIFY SLATE 

'In all my school work I use Natural Slate Blackboards, and I am convinced 
that they are the most economical installation and that they give better satis- 
faction than any substitute on the market. 

"I never consider a substitute for the Natural Slate where it is possible to 

use same." 

LORENTZ SCHMIDT. 



EVERLASTING QUALITY COMMENDS THEM 

"It has been my invariable custom for the past twenty years to specify and 
have installed Natural Slate Blackboards in my school buildings. In that period 
I have completed schools to the value of several millions of dollars, and I have 
no instance where the Natural Slate boards have not given the greatest satis- 
faction. Their everlasting quality commends them to all my clients." 

C. H. LLOYD. 





Steele School, Harrisburg, Penna, 

Charles Howard Lloyd, Architect, 

Harrisburg, Penna. 



Gloversville High School. 

Glot'ersviUe. N. Y. 

Wilson Potter. Architect, 

Vt'u York City 



SATISFACTION BASED ON EXPERIENCE 

"Enclosed is a list of sixty-three school buildings, in all but three of which 
we used Natural Slate Blackboards. 

"This is evidence that our experience with Natural Slate has been satis- 
factory." 

WILSON POTTER. 



NO SUBSTITUTE FOR NATURAL SLATE 

"Natural Slate is the best for blackboards; no substitutes for me. I tried 

a'substitute once, BUT NEVER AGAIN." 

E. J. MOUNTSEPHEN. 




MB i'^'.T3 



Stirers .^fanual Training School. 

Dayton, Ohio 

Edward J. Mountsephen, Architect, 

Dayton, Ohio 



OPINIONS FROM SOME SCHOOL OFFICIALS 



J. H. Phillips, Superintendent of Public Schools, 
Birnninghann, Ala. 

"In a permanent building it is my judgment that 
onlyj Natural Slate Blackboards should be used. All 
other kinds of blackboards, no matter what the 
method of their preparation, are temporary devices 
and, even though the best of their kind, must be con- 
sidered poor substitutes for the Natural Slate." 

Clement C. Hyde, Principal Hartford Public High 
School, Hartford, Connecticut 

*'We have recently installed several hundred 
running feet of Natural Slate Blackboards in this 
building, substituting it for the old pulp board which 
had become u^satisfacto^>^ Although the initial cost 
of Natural Slate is higher than some other boards. 
we have found from years of experience that it is the 
most satisfactory in the long run." 



H. L. Dornnan, Superintendent of Public Build- 
ings, Springfield, Massachusetts 

"The Natural Slate Blackboards furnished by 
your Company for several of our buildings in the past 
three years have been satisfactory, and all contracts 
with this department have been completed as agreed." 

In addition to these three, numerous other letters 
are on record indicating satisfaction with the use of 
natural slate. Among them are letters from: 

Emory E. Smiley, Superintendent of Schools, Du- 

rango, Colo. 
W. F. Wenner, Superintendent Bartlesville Public 

Schools, Bartlesville, Oklahoma. 
H. R. Edwards, Superintendent Crosby -Ironton 

Pubhc Schools, Crosby, Minnesota. 
C. L. Hill. Principal, Grantsburg, Wisconsin. 
EAgar Reed, SuF>erintendent of Public SchooU, 

Centralia, Washington. 
E. D. Price, Superintendent, Enid City Schools. 

Enid, Oklahoma. 



20